Kyoto Area Studies on Asia (in Japanese)
Kyoto Area Studies on Asia
Oriental Research Series
Kyoto CSEAS Series on Asian Studies 15
Catastrophe and Regeneration in Indonesia’s Peatlands
Ecology, Economy and Society,

Kosuke Mizuno, Motoko S. Fujita & Shuichi Kawai eds

PB 506 pages JPY 5,400
ISBN: 9784876988778
pub. date: 02/16
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The serious degradation of the vast peatlands of Indonesia since the 1990s is the proximate cause of the haze that endangers public health in Indonesian Sumatra and Borneo, and also in neighbouring Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. Moreover peatlands that have been drained and cleared for plantations are a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. This new book explains the degradation of peat soils and outlines a potential course of action to deal with the catastrophe looming over the region. Concerted action will be required to reduce peatland fires, and a successful policy needs to enhance social welfare and economic survival, support natural conservation and provide a return on investment if there is to be a sustainable society in the peatlands. This book argues that regeneration is possible through a new policy of people’s forestry that includes reforestation and rewetting peat soils. The data come from a major long-term research effort–the humanosphere project–that coordinates work done by researchers from the physical, natural and human or social sciences.

table of contents

List of Tables
List of Figures

Introduction: Perspectives on Tropical Biomass Societies
Kosuke Mizuno, Motoko S. Fujita, Kazuo Watanabe, Shuichi Kawai
1 The Development of Peatlands in Southeast Asia and the
Evolution of Tropical Biomass Societies: Historical Changes
in the Human–Nature Interface
2 A Comprehensive Understanding of Biomass Societies
3 The Proposal for People’s Forestry
4 The Format of This Book

Part 1: The Scope of Tropical Biomass Societies
The Aims of Part 1

Chapter 1: Land and Forest Policy in Southeast Asia
Kosuke Mizuno, Retno Kusumaningtyas
1 Land Policy and Forestry Policy in Southeast Asia
2 Forest Policy in Indonesia during the Colonial Period
3 Land Policy in Indonesia during the Colonial Period
4 Land Policy in Indonesia after Independence
5 Forestry Policy in Indonesia after Independence

Chapter 2: The Biodiversity of southeast asian tropical rainforests
Motoko S. Fujita & Hiromitsu Samejima
1 The Biodiversity of Indonesia’s Tropical Rainforests
2 The Declining Biodiversity of Tropical Rainforests
3 A Framework to Maintain the Biodiversity of Indonesia’s Tropical Rainforests

Chapter 3: Biomass Assessment of Afforested Regions in Tropical Southeast Asia
Shuichi Kawai, Kazuo Watanabe
1 Introduction
2 State of the Forests in Southeast Asia
3 Changing Timber Use: From Natural to Planted Trees
4 Biomass Accumulation of Forests and Individual Trees
5 Role of Forests as Sinks for Atmospheric CO2
6 Estimation and Verification of Forest Biomass: A Case Study
7 Forest Biomass Stock and Flow
8 Assessment of Biomass Sustainability

Part 2: Peat Swamps as Sustainable Humanosphere: Their History and Ecology
The Aims of Part 2

Chapter 4: an overview of tropical peat swamps
Tetsuya Shimamura
1 The Landscape of Peat Swamp Forests
2 Formation and Development of Peat Swamp Forests
3 The Vegetation of Peat Swamp Forests
4 Peat Found in Peat Swamps
5 History of Peat Swamp Forest Development: Farmland
Development and Its Problems (the Mega Rice Project)
6 Concluding Remarks—Towards the Expansion of Tropical
Peat Swamp Forest Research

Chapter 5: A Socioeconomic History of the Peatland Region:
From Trade to Land Development, and Then to Conservation
Kazuya Masuda, Kosuke Mizuno, Kaoru Sugihara
1 Introduction: What Value Have People Attached to Peatlands?
2 The Peatland Region as a Single Spatial Unit
3 Until 1870: Development of a Maritime Network Society through Trade
4 Expanded Biomass Production in the Hilly Region and
Reorganisation of the Peatland Region: 1870–1960s
5 The Age of Large-Scale Development: From the mid-1960s to 1998
6 The Conflict between Development and Conservation: 1998 Onward
7 The Changing Value of the Peatlands

Chapter 6: Local Communities in the Peatland Region:
Demographic Composition and Land Use
Kazuya Masuda, Retno Kusumaningtyas, Kosuke Mizuno
1 Introduction
2 Transitions in Local Communities in the Peatland Region:
From Small Communities to Multiethnic Societies
3 The Relationship of Local People with the Peatlands
4 Differences in Land Use between Indigenous Inhabitants and Migrants

Chapter 7: Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Ecosystems and REDD+
Shigeo Kobayashi
1 Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Ecosystems
2 Characteristics of Tropical Peatlands
3 Land Use Change and Peat Decomposition
4 REDD+ and Safeguards in Peat Swamp Forest Ecosystems

Part 3: The Case Study of Riau
The Aims of Part 3

Chapter 8: Outline of the Survey Area in Riau Province, Indonesia
Haruka Suzuki, Hiromitsu Samejima, Motoko S. Fujita,
Kazuo Watanabe, Kazuya Masuda, Kosuke Mizuno
1 The Geography and Society of the Survey Area
2 Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSK-BB BR)
3 Conclusion

Chapter 9: deforestation and the process of expansion of oil palm and acacia plantations
Kazuo Watanabe, Kazuya Masuda, and Shuichi Kawai
1 Introduction—Land Use Change of Peat Swamp Forests Accompanying the Expansion of Human Activity
2 Evaluation of Current Land Use
3 Current Land Use and Land Use Transformation Processes
4 Summary—Potential for Sustainability of the New Biomass
Society that Has Developed in the Analysis Area

Chapter 10: Rainfall and Groundwater Level Fluctuations in the Peat Swamps
Osamu Kozan
1 Introduction: The Development of Peat Swamps and Groundwater Level Fluctuations
2 Rainfall in Riau Province, Sumatra
3 Groundwater Level Fluctuations in the Peat Swamps
4 Summary: Toward an Understanding of the Hydrological System of Peat Swamps

Chapter 11: Combined Biomass Production, the Local Economy, and Societies
Kosuke Mizuno, Kazuya Masuda
1 Surveyed Area and Methods
2 The People in the Surveyed Village
3 Land Ownership by Surveyed Households
4 Biomass Production in the Peatlands Area
5 Abandoned Peatland
6 Employment Opportunities Outside Agriculture
7 Income by Class
8 People’s Forestry

Chapter 12: Biodiversity in peat swamp Forest and plantations
Hiromitsu Samejima, Motoko S. Fujita, Ahmad Muhammad
1 Introduction: How Does the Transformation of Sumatra’s Peat Swamp Forests Affect Biodiversity?
2 Methods
3 Results: Capture Rate and Observation Frequency
4 Discussion: How Does Conversion of Peat Swamp Forest Affect Biodiversity?
5 Biodiversity Conservation in Peat Swamp Forests

Chapter 13: Biomass Production by Companies and Smallholders
Kazuo Watanabe, Shuichi Kawai, Kosuke Mizuno, Kazuya Masuda
1 Introduction
2 Sites of Biomass Production by Companies and Smallholders
3 Evaluation of Biomass Resource Production by Plantations and Smallholders
4 Evaluation of Biomass Accumulation of Companies and Smallholders
5 Summary: Conservation of Peat Swamps Using Unique Local Biomass Production Systems

Chapter 14: The Rehabilitation of Degraded Peat Swamp Forest Ecosystems
Haris Gunawan, Shigeo Kobayashi
1 What Is Rehabilitation of Degraded Forest?
2 Methods for Rehabilitating Degraded Peat Swamp Forests
3 The Structure of Rehabilitated Forest
4 The Significance of Rehabilitated Forest to the Global Environment and Local People

Epilogue: Towards the Regeneration of Biomass Societies
Motoko S. Fujita, Kosuke Mizuno, Shuichi Kawai, Kazuo
Watanabe, Hiromitsu Samejima, Kazuya Masuda, Haruka
Suzuki, Kaoru Sugihara, Shigeo Kobayashi, Osamu Kozan,
Tetsuya Shimamura
1 Environmental Degradation Due to Past Development of the Peatlands
2 The Potential for Co-existence of the Profit, Survival, and Conservation Motives: Findings from Fieldwork
3 Analysis of Current Biomass Production Systems from the Perspective of the Three Motives
4 Toward Maximisation of the Three Motives: A Proposal for People’s Forestry
5 Toward Realising People’s Forestry
6 The Significance of Interdisciplinary Area Studies

Glossary of Standardised Terms Used in This Book